Ferdinando II de’ Medici considered, in 1629, the opportunity to enlarge the town of Livorno, on project by Giovanni Battista Santi, toward north in an area included among Fortezza Vecchia and Fortezza Nuova, in order to give an adequate space to the maritime and commercial activities. There was the need to build a mercantile district, close to Porto Mediceo, provided with houses and depots to store the merchandise and a system of canals to facilitate their transport. The new district, called Venezia Nuova, was built in an area gained to the sea, intersected by canals and linked to the town with bridges.
A new impulse to the works was given in 1656 concerning the distribution of the spaces where to build other houses and stores; consequently arose the problem of the diverse oriented road scheme respect to the axis of Piazza d’Arme, it was resolved adopting a road plan perpendicular to the Navicelli channel. The paving of the roads and along the canals in Venezia Nuova was provided in 1668, while the Pescheria Nuova (New fish-market) was built in 1705 close to the Scali del Pesce where the fish was unloaded.
In the 1700s Venezia Nuova was the district of the Consuls of the Nations and of the most important international retailers who had the warehouses filled with goods from everywhere waiting to be shipped by sea to the most different destinations.